Papers of the Month – 2022

December, 2022

Arevalo CP, Bolton MJ, Le Sage V, Ye N, Furey C, Muramatsu H, Alameh MG, Pardi N, Drapeau EM, Parkhouse K, Garretson T, Morris JS, Moncla LH, Tam YK, Fan SHY, Lakdawala SS, Weissman D, Hensley SE.

Science. 2022 Nov 25;378(6622):899-904. doi: 10.1126/science.abm0271. Epub 2022 Nov 24. PMID: 36423275.

Seasonal influenza vaccines offer little protection against pandemic influenza virus strains. It is difficult to create effective prepandemic vaccines because it is uncertain which influenza virus subtype will cause the next pandemic. In this work, we developed a nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (mRNA)-lipid nanoparticle vaccine encoding hemagglutinin antigens from all 20 known influenza A virus subtypes and influenza B virus lineages. This multivalent vaccine elicited high levels of cross-reactive and subtype-specific antibodies in mice and ferrets that reacted to all 20 encoded antigens. Vaccination protected mice and ferrets challenged with matched and mismatched viral strains, and this protection was at least partially dependent on antibodies. Our studies indicate that mRNA vaccines can provide protection against antigenically variable viruses by simultaneously inducing antibodies against multiple antigens.

November, 2022

Zhang Z, Mateus J, Coelho CH, Dan JM, Moderbacher CR, Gálvez RI, Cortes FH, Grifoni A, Tarke A, Chang J, Escarrega EA, Kim C, Goodwin B, Bloom NI, Frazier A, Weiskopf D, Sette A, Crotty S.

Cell. 2022 Jul 7;185(14):2434-2451.e17. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.05.022. Epub 2022 May 27. PMID: 35764089; PMCID: PMC9135677.

Multiple COVID-19 vaccines, representing diverse vaccine platforms, successfully protect against symptomatic COVID-19 cases and deaths. Head-to-head comparisons of T cell, B cell, and antibody responses to diverse vaccines in humans are likely to be informative for understanding protective immunity against COVID-19, with particular interest in immune memory. Here, SARS-CoV-2-spike-specific immune responses to Moderna mRNA-1273, Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2, Janssen Ad26.COV2.S, and Novavax NVX-CoV2373 were examined longitudinally for 6 months 100% of individuals made memory CD4+ T cells, with cTfh and CD4-CTL highly represented after mRNA or NVX-CoV2373 vaccination. mRNA vaccines and Ad26.COV2.S induced comparable CD8+ T cell frequencies, though only detectable in 60-67% of subjects at 6 months. A differentiating feature of Ad26.COV2.S immunization was a high frequency of CXCR3+ memory B cells. mRNA vaccinees had substantial declines in antibodies, while memory T and B cells were comparatively stable. These results may also be relevant for insights against other pathogens.

October, 2022

Chalkias S, Harper C, Vrbicky K, Walsh SR, Essink B, Brosz A, McGhee N, Tomassini JE, Chen X, Chang Y, Sutherland A, Montefiori DC, Girard B, Edwards DK, Feng J, Zhou H, Baden LR, Miller JM, Das R.

N Engl J Med. 2022 Oct 6;387(14):1279-1291. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2208343. Epub 2022 Sep 16. PMID: 36112399; PMCID: PMC9511634.

Background: The safety and immunogenicity of the bivalent omicron-containing mRNA-1273.214 booster vaccine are not known.

Methods: In this ongoing, phase 2-3 study, we compared the 50-μg bivalent vaccine mRNA-1273.214 (25 μg each of ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 and omicron B.1.1.529 [BA.1] spike messenger RNAs) with the previously authorized 50-μg mRNA-1273 booster. We administered mRNA-1273.214 or mRNA-1273 as a second booster in adults who had previously received a two-dose (100-μg) primary series and first booster (50-μg) dose of mRNA-1273 (≥3 months earlier). The primary objectives were to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273.214 at 28 days after the booster dose.

Results: Interim results are presented. Sequential groups of participants received 50 μg of mRNA-1273.214 (437 participants) or mRNA-1273 (377 participants) as a second booster dose. The median time between the first and second boosters was similar for mRNA-1273.214 (136 days) and mRNA-1273 (134 days). In participants with no previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against the omicron BA.1 variant were 2372.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2070.6 to 2718.2) after receipt of the mRNA-1273.214 booster and 1473.5 (95% CI, 1270.8 to 1708.4) after receipt of the mRNA-1273 booster. In addition, 50-μg mRNA-1273.214 and 50-μg mRNA-1273 elicited geometric mean titers of 727.4 (95% CI, 632.8 to 836.1) and 492.1 (95% CI, 431.1 to 561.9), respectively, against omicron BA.4 and BA.5 (BA.4/5), and the mRNA-1273.214 booster also elicited higher binding antibody responses against multiple other variants (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) than the mRNA-1273 booster. Safety and reactogenicity were similar with the two booster vaccines. Vaccine effectiveness was not assessed in this study; in an exploratory analysis, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 11 participants after the mRNA-1273.214 booster and in 9 participants after the mRNA-1273 booster.

Conclusions: The bivalent omicron-containing vaccine mRNA-1273.214 elicited neutralizing antibody responses against omicron that were superior to those with mRNA-1273, without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Moderna; number, NCT04927065.).

September, 2022

Bennett SR, McCarty JM, Ramanathan R, Mendy J, Richardson JS, Smith J, Alexander J, Ledgerwood JE, de Lame PA, Royalty Tredo S, Warfield KL, Bedell L.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2022 Sep;22(9):1343-1355. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00226-2. Epub 2022 Jun 13. PMID: 35709798.

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) disease is an ongoing public health threat. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of PXVX0317, an aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted formulation of a CHIKV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine.

Methods: This randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 2 trial was conducted at three clinical trial centres in the USA. Eligible participants were healthy CHIKV-naïve adults aged 18-45 years. Participants were stratified by site and randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1) to one of the eight vaccination groups using a block size of 16. Group 1 received two doses of unadjuvanted PXVX0317 28 days apart (2 × 20 μg; standard); all other groups received adjuvanted PXVX0317: groups 2-4 received two doses 28 days apart (2 × 6 μg [group 2], 2 × 10 μg [group 3], or 2 × 20 μg [group 4]; standard); group 4 also received a booster dose 18 months after the first active injection (40 μg; standard plus booster); groups 5-7 received two doses 14 days apart (2 × 6 μg [group 5], 2 × 10 μg [group 6], or 2 × 20 μg [group 7]; accelerated); and group 8 received one dose (1 × 40 μg; single). The primary endpoint was the geometric mean titre of anti-CHIKV neutralising antibody on day 57 (28 days after the last vaccination), assessed in the immunogenicity-evaluable population. Additionally, we assessed safety. This trial is registered at, NCT03483961.

Findings: This trial was conducted from April 18, 2018, to Sept 21, 2020; 468 participants were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 415 participants were randomly assigned to eight groups (n=53 in groups 1, 5, and 6; n=52 in groups 2 and 8; n=51 in groups 3 and 7; and n=50 in group 4) and 373 were evaluable for immunogenicity. On day 57, serum neutralising antibody geometric mean titres were 2057·0 (95% CI 1584·8-2670·0) in group 1, 1116·2 (852·5-1461·4; p=0·0015 vs group 1 used as a reference) in group 2, 1465·3 (1119·1-1918·4; p=0·076) in group 3, 2023·8 (1550·5-2641·7; p=0·93) in group 4, 920·1 (710·9-1190·9; p<0·0001) in group 5, 1206·9 (932·4-1562·2; p=0·0045) in group 6, 1562·8 (1204·1-2028·3; p=0·14) in group 7, and 1712·5 (1330·0-2205·0; p=0·32) in group 8. In group 4, a booster dose increased serum neutralising antibody geometric mean titres from 215·7 (95% CI 160·9-289·1) on day 547 to 10 941·1 (7378·0-16 225·1) on day 575. Durability of the immune response (evaluated in groups 1, 4, and 8) was shown up to 2 years. The most common solicited adverse event was pain at the injection site, reported in 12 (23%) of 53 participants who received the unadjuvanted vaccine (group 1) and 111 (31%) of 356 who received the adjuvanted vaccine. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported.

Interpretation: PXVX0317 was well tolerated and induced a robust and durable serum neutralising antibody immune response against CHIKV up to 2 years. A single 40 μg injection of adjuvanted PXVX0317 is being further investigated in phase 3 clinical trials (NCT05072080 and NCT05349617).

August, 2022

Kuraoka M, Yeh CH, Bajic G, Kotaki R, Song S, Windsor I, Harrison SC, Kelsoe G.

Sci Immunol. 2022 May 6;7(71):eabn5311. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abn5311. Epub 2022 May 6. PMID: 35522723; PMCID: PMC9169233

Immunization or microbial infection can establish long-term B cell memory not only systemically but also locally. Evidence has suggested that local B cell memory contributes to early local plasmacytic responses after secondary challenge. However, it is unclear whether locality of immunization plays any role in memory B cell participation in recall germinal centers (GCs), which is essential for updating their B cell antigen receptors (BCRs). Using single B cell culture and fate mapping, we have characterized BCR repertoires in recall GCs after boost immunizations at sites local or distal to the priming. Local boosts with homologous antigen recruit the progeny of primary GC B cells to recall GCs more efficiently than do distal boosts. Recall GCs elicited by local boosts contain significantly more B cells with elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) mutation and higher avidity BCRs. This local preference is unaffected by blocking CD40:CD154 interaction to terminate active, GC responses. Local boosts with heterologous antigens elicit secondary GCs with B cell populations enriched for cross-reactivity to the prime and boost antigens; in contrast, cross-reactive GC B cells are rare after distal boosts. Our results suggest that local B cell memory is retained in the form of memory B cells, GC B cells, and GC phenotype B cells that are independent of organized GC structures and that these persistent “primed B cells” contribute to recall GC responses at local sites. Our findings indicate the importance of locality in humoral immunity and inform serial vaccination strategies for evolving viruses.

July, 2022

Schmoele-Thoma B, Zareba AM, Jiang Q, Maddur MS, Danaf R, Mann A, Eze K, Fok-Seang J, Kabir G, Catchpole A, Scott DA, Gurtman AC, Jansen KU, Gruber WC, Dormitzer PR, Swanson KA.

N Engl J Med. 2022 Jun 23;386(25):2377-2386. PMID: 35731653 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116154

Background: Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of illness and death in older adults, no RSV vaccine has been licensed.

Methods: In a phase 2a study, we randomly assigned healthy adults (18 to 50 years of age), in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a single intramuscular injection of either bivalent prefusion F (RSVpreF) vaccine or placebo. Approximately 28 days after injection, participants were inoculated intranasally with the RSV A Memphis 37b challenge virus and observed for 12 days. The per-protocol prespecified primary end points were the following: reverse-transcriptase-quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-qPCR)-confirmed detectable RSV infection on at least 2 consecutive days with at least one clinical symptom of any grade from two categories or at least one grade 2 symptom from any category, the total symptom score from day 1 to discharge, and the area under the curve (AUC) for the RSV viral load in nasal-wash samples measured by means of RT-qPCR from day 2 after challenge to discharge. In addition, we assessed immunogenicity and safety.

Results: After participants were inoculated with the challenge virus, vaccine efficacy of 86.7% (95% CI, 53.8 to 96.5) was observed for symptomatic RSV infection confirmed by any detectable viral RNA on at least 2 consecutive days. The median UAC for the RSV viral load (hours x log10 copies per milliliter) as measured by RT-qPCR assay was 0.0 (interquartile range, 0.0 to 19.0) in the vaccine group and 96.7 (interquartile range, 0.0 to 675.3) in the placebo group. The geometric mean factor increase from baseline in RSV A-neutralizing titers 28 days after injection was 20.5 (95% CI, 16.6 to 25.3) in the vaccine group and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.3) in the placebo group. More local injection-site pain was noted in the vaccine group than in the placebo group.  No serious adverse events were observed in either group.

Conclusions: RSVpreF vaccine was effective against symptomatic RSV infection and viral shedding. No evident safety concerns were identified. These findings provide support for further evaluation of RSVpreF vaccine in a phase 3 efficacy study. (Funded by Pfizer; EudraCT number, 2020-003887-21; number, NCT04785612.).

June, 2022

Noémie Lefrancq 1 2, Valérie Bouchez 3 4, Nadia Fernandes 3, Alex-Mikael Barkoff 5, Thijs Bosch 6, Tine Dalby 7, Thomas Åkerlund 8, Jessica Darenberg 8, Katerina Fabianova 9, Didrik F Vestrheim 10, Norman K Fry 11 12, Juan José González-López 13 14, Karolina Gullsby 15, Adele Habington 16, Qiushui He 5 17, David Litt 11, Helena Martini 18, Denis Piérard 18, Paola Stefanelli 19, Marc Stegger 7, Jana Zavadilova 20, Nathalie Armatys 3 4, Annie Landier 3 4, Sophie Guillot 3 4, Samuel L Hong 21, Philippe Lemey 21, Julian Parkhill 22, Julie Toubiana 3 4 23, Simon Cauchemez 1, Henrik Salje 1 2, Sylvain Brisse 3 4

Sci Transl Med. 2022 Apr 27;14(642):eabn3253. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abn3253. Epub 2022 Apr 27

As with other pathogens, competitive interactions between Bordetella pertussis strains drive infection risk. Vaccines are thought to perturb strain diversity through shifts in immune pressures; however, this has rarely been measured because of inadequate data and analytical tools. We used 3344 sequences from 23 countries to show that, on average, there are 28.1 transmission chains circulating within a subnational region, with the number of chains strongly associated with host population size. It took 5 to 10 years for B. pertussis to be homogeneously distributed throughout Europe, with the same time frame required for the United States. Increased fitness of pertactin-deficient strains after implementation of acellular vaccines, but reduced fitness otherwise, can explain long-term genotype dynamics. These findings highlight the role of vaccine policy in shifting local diversity of a pathogen that is responsible for 160,000 deaths annually.

May, 2022

Eddy Pérez-Then # 1, Carolina Lucas # 2, Valter Silva Monteiro # 3, Marija Miric # 4, Vivian Brache 5, Leila Cochon 5, Chantal B F Vogels 6, Amyn A Malik 7 8, Elena De la Cruz 5, Aidelis Jorge 5, Margarita De Los Santos 5, Patricia Leon 9, Mallery I Breban 6, Kendall Billig 6, Inci Yildirim 6 7 10, Claire Pearson 11, Randy Downing 11, Emily Gagnon 11, Anthony Muyombwe 11, Jafar Razeq 11, Melissa Campbell 10, Albert I Ko 6 8 12, Saad B Omer 6 7 8, Nathan D Grubaugh 6 13, Sten H Vermund 14, Akiko Iwasaki 15 16.

PMID: 35051990 PMCID: PMC8938264 DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-01705-6 Abstract Nat Med. 2022 Mar;28(3):481-485. doi: 10.1038/s41591-022-01705-6. Epub 2022 Jan 20

The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is raising concerns because of its increased transmissibility and its numerous spike mutations, which have the potential to evade neutralizing antibodies elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. Here we evaluated the effects of a heterologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine booster on the humoral immunity of participants who had received a two-dose regimen of CoronaVac, an inactivated vaccine used globally. We found that a heterologous CoronaVac prime vaccination of two doses followed by a BNT162b2 booster induces elevated virus-specific antibody levels and potent neutralization activity against the ancestral virus and the Delta variant, resembling the titers obtained after two doses of mRNA vaccines. Although neutralization of Omicron was undetectable in participants who had received a two-dose regimen of CoronaVac, the BNT162b2 booster resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in neutralization activity against Omicron compared with the two-dose mRNA vaccine. Despite this increase, neutralizing antibody titers were reduced by 7.1-fold and 3.6-fold for Omicron compared with the ancestral strain and the Delta variant, respectively. These findings have immediate implications for multiple countries that previously used a CoronaVac regimen and reinforce the idea that the Omicron variant is associated with immune escape from vaccines or infection-induced immunity, highlighting the global need for vaccine boosters to combat the impact of emerging variants.

April, 2022

Tahtinen S, Tong AJ, Himmels P, Oh J, Paler-Martinez A, Kim L, Wichner S, Oei Y, McCarron MJ, Freund EC, Amir ZA, de la Cruz CC, Haley B, Blanchette C, Schartner JM, Ye W, Yadav M, Sahin U, Delamarre L, Mellman I. Nat Immunol. 2022 Mar 24. doi: 10.1038/s41590-022-01160-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35332327 .

The use of lipid-formulated RNA vaccines for cancer or COVID-19 is associated with dose-limiting systemic inflammatory responses in humans that were not predicted from preclinical studies. Here, we show that the ‘interleukin 1 (IL-1)-interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)’ axis regulates vaccine-mediated systemic inflammation in a host-specific manner. In human immune cells, RNA vaccines induce production of IL-1 cytokines, predominantly IL-1β, which is dependent on both the RNA and lipid formulation. IL-1 in turn triggers the induction of the broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6). Unlike humans, murine leukocytes respond to RNA vaccines by upregulating anti-inflammatory IL-1ra relative to IL-1 (predominantly IL-1α), protecting mice from cytokine-mediated toxicities at >1,000-fold higher vaccine doses. Thus, the IL-1 pathway plays a key role in triggering RNA vaccine-associated innate signaling, an effect that was unexpectedly amplified by certain lipids used in vaccine formulations incorporating N1-methyl-pseudouridine-modified RNA to reduce activation of Toll-like receptor signaling.

March, 2022

N Engl J Med. 2022 Feb 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2118691. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35172051.

Hall V, Foulkes S, Insalata F, Kirwan P, Saei A, Atti A, Wellington E, Khawam J, Munro K, Cole M, Tranquillini C, Taylor-Kerr A, Hettiarachchi N, Calbraith D, Sajedi N, Milligan I, Themistocleous Y, Corrigan D, Cromey L, Price L, Stewart S, de Lacy E, Norman C, Linley E, Otter AD, Semper A, Hewson J, D’Arcangelo S, Chand M, Brown CS, Brooks T, Islam J, Charlett A, Hopkins S; SIREN Study Group.

Background:  The duration and effectiveness of immunity from infection with and vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are relevant to pandemic policy interventions, including the timing of vaccine boosters.

Methods:  We investigated the duration and effectiveness of immunity in a prospective cohort of asymptomatic health care workers in the United Kingdom who underwent routine polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) testing. Vaccine effectiveness (≤10 months after the first dose of vaccine) and infection-acquired immunity were assessed by comparing the time to PCR-confirmed infection in vaccinated persons with that in unvaccinated persons, stratified according to previous infection status. We used a Cox regression model with adjustment for previous SARS-CoV-2 infection status, vaccine type and dosing interval, demographic characteristics, and workplace exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

Results:  Of 35,768 participants, 27% (9488) had a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccine coverage was high: 97% of the participants had received two doses (78% had received BNT162b2 vaccine [Pfizer-BioNTech] with a long interval between doses, 9% BNT162b2 vaccine with a short interval between doses, and 8% ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine [AstraZeneca]). Between December 7, 2020, and September 21, 2021, a total of 2747 primary infections and 210 reinfections were observed. Among previously uninfected participants who received long-interval BNT162b2 vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness decreased from 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72 to 92) 14 to 73 days after the second dose to 51% (95% CI, 22 to 69) at a median of 201 days (interquartile range, 197 to 205) after the second dose; this effectiveness did not differ significantly between the long-interval and short-interval BNT162b2 vaccine recipients. At 14 to 73 days after the second dose, adjusted vaccine effectiveness among ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine recipients was 58% (95% CI, 23 to 77) – considerably lower than that among BNT162b2 vaccine recipients. Infection-acquired immunity waned after 1 year in unvaccinated participants but remained consistently higher than 90% in those who were subsequently vaccinated, even in persons infected more than 18 months previously.

Conclusions:  Two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were associated with high short-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection; this protection waned considerably after 6 months. Infection-acquired immunity boosted with vaccination remained high more than 1 year after infection. (Funded by the U.K. Health Security Agency and others; ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN11041050.).

February, 2022

Sci Immunol. 2022 Feb 3:eabn8590. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abn8590. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35113654.

Kotaki R, Adachi Y, Moriyama S, Onodera T, Fukushi S, Nagakura T, Tonouchi K, Terahara K, Sun L, Takano T, Nishiyama A, Shinkai M, Oba K, Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Shimizu H, Suzuki T, Matsumura T, Isogawa M, Takahashi Y.

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants possess mutations in the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) with potential to evade neutralizing antibody. In particular, the Beta and Omicron variants escape from antibody neutralizing activity in those who received two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Nonetheless, boosting with a third vaccine dose or by breakthrough infection improves the overall breadth of the neutralizing antibodies, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we longitudinally profiled the cellular composition of RBD-binding memory B cell subsets and their antibody binding and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants following the second dose of mRNA vaccine. Two doses of the mRNA vaccine elicited plasma neutralizing antibodies with a limited activity against Beta and Omicron but induced an expanded antibody breadth overtime, up to 4.9 months post vaccination. In contrast, more than one third of RBD-binding IgG+ memory B cells with a resting phenotype initially bound the Beta and Omicron variants and steadily increased the B cell receptor (BCR) breadth overtime. As a result, a fraction of the resting memory B cell subset secreted Beta and Omicron-neutralizing antibody when stimulated in vitro. The neutralizing breadth of the resting memory B cell subset helps us understand the prominent recall of Omicron-neutralizing antibodies after an additional booster or breakthrough infection in fully vaccinated individuals.

January, 2022

Front Plant Sci. 2022 Jan 4;12:798822. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.798822. PMID: 35058959; PMCID: PMC8764404.

Emmanuel Margolin, Matthew Verbeek, Warren de Moor, Ros Chapman, Ann Meyers, Georgia Schäfer, Anna-Lise Williamson and Edward Rybicki.

Given the complex maturation requirements of viral glycoproteins and the challenge they often pose for expression in plants, the identification of host constraints precluding their efficient production is a priority for the molecular farming of vaccines. Building on previous work to improve viral glycoprotein production in plants, we investigated the production of a soluble SARS-CoV-2 spike comprising the ectopic portion of the glycoprotein. This was successfully transiently expressed in N. benthamiana by co-expressing the human lectin-binding chaperone calreticulin, which substantially increased the accumulation of the glycoprotein. The spike was mostly unprocessed unless the protease furin was co-expressed which resulted in highly efficient processing of the glycoprotein. Co-expression of several broad-spectrum protease inhibitors did not improve accumulation of the protein any further. The protein was successfully purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration, although the purified product was heterogenous and the yields were low. Immunogenicity of the antigen was tested in BALB/c mice, and cellular and antibody responses were elicited after low dose inoculation with the adjuvanted protein. This work constitutes an important proof-of-concept for host plant engineering in the context of rapid vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses.

The International Society for Vaccines is an organization that engages, supports, and sustains the professional goals of a diverse membership in all areas relevant to vaccines and immunotherapeutics.  The ISV is a global not-for-profit organization that aims to encourage, establish, and promote the development and use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious and non-infectious diseases in animals and humans.  /  ISV Annual Congress